History  


...At the cross of large Carpatian-Danube water-ways, those of Mures and Jiu, between the ethnographic original Banat and the Oltenia of a stable popular tradition, the Hunedoara core called Tara Hategului, was surrounded by the highs of Retzat; national park with lots of rare species and multiple glacial lakes, of high forest peaks of Orastiei Mountains and lower peaks of Poiana Ruscai Mountains.

 
...Relics of their history are from the Mezozoic era corresponding between 70 and 64 million years ago, when this region was part of an island from the ex-ocean Tethys and where were founded fossils of some dinosaur species that were dwarfish herbivorous; those fossils were founded as a result of researches made 150 years ago and archeological diggings in Sampetru, Sacel, Tustea and Valioara. Near the caves from Orastiei Mountains were founded fossils of cave bears, but the most important is the skeleton of a Neaderthal man, that proves the habitat existent on those lands thousands years ago. Almost 2000 years ago, on these land were our ancestors, the Dacians, which had their capital in Orastiei Mountains; the grand capital of Dacian state was set up about the middle of first century before Christ, covering the citadel, the sacred zone and the civil settlement.

...It was the biggest known Dacian fortification, near it were build other citadels that had the role to protect the entrance from the valleys that had access to the capital of Dacian state. These citadels are Banita, that protected the access to the capital from the Valley of Jiu, Costesti, Blidaru and Piatra Rosie – that protected the access from Valley of Streiu and Mures. After Emperor Traian manages to win the two bloody wars between 101-102 and 105-106, and defeat the army of King Decebal, Romans ruled a part of Dacia; as a result, by the order of the great Emperor, it starts the building of a great city which had the name of Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, the ruins of this city being overridden mostly by the actual locality Sarmizegetusa. The choice made by Emperor Traian of the place for the city that will carry his name wasn’t random.

...By its position, the metropolis of province had some strategic and economical advantages for that period; the Retezat Mountains at South and Poiana Ruscai Mountains at North were natural barriers hard to pass for eventual attackers. The antique metropolis, which “territorium” was from Tibiscum (another Roman city from Banat) to Micia (near Deva) and to the entrance of Jiu in defile, it could develop peacefully, being protected by Tibiscum, Voislova, Micia and Bumbesti Jiu. Through Ulpia Traiana passed the imperial road from Danube which made the connection with north of Dacian-Roman province, at Porolissum. The antique city had about 32 hectares surrounded by walls 6m height and 2m thick, the rectangular shape of defense walls having a final size of 540m width and 600m long. The city wasn’t limited by the walls. Behind the walls, on a large area (about 100 hectares) were situated the houses (villae), the craftsmen ateliers, temples, the amphitheatre, the cemeteries of the city and other public or private buildings.